Pangolins are protected to some degree in most range states, although the level of protection and the penalties that can be imposed vary considerably between states. We have included the known legislation applicable to each species below. All information was correct at the time of publication (October 2016), and although we will endeavor to keep this information updated we advise you to verify the legislation should you require it for legal proceedings or other applications. Two good websites that can be used to verify that the information reflected here is still current are ECOLEX and FAOLEX. All monetary penalties have been converted to United States Dollars (USD) for ease of comparison using the converting function on Coinmill.com, and were correct at the time of publishing (October 2016).

All African pangolin species are listed on CITES Appendix I and as such trade is strictly regulated, with no trade permitted for primarily commercial purposes.

This initiative to centralise all the primary legislation and penalties for each African range state was a joint initiative between the African Pangolin Working Group and the Tikki Hywood Trust.

Southern Africa

Angola
Botswana
Malawi
Mozambique
Namibia
South Africa
Swaziland
Zambia
Zimbabwe
  • Legislation:
    Ruling on the Protection of Land, Flora and Fauna, Decree no 40.040 of 1955

    Species applicable to:
    All African pangolin species

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Possibly Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Possibly Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea), Possibly Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Hunting prohibited without a permit. A fine not exceeding USD 5,000 may be imposed for contraventions.

  • Legislation:
    Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act of 1992

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Protected Game Animal. No person shall without a permit hunt or capture a Protected Game Species. Contraventions may result in a BWP 10,000 [USD 934.00] fine and imprisonment for seven years.

  • Legislation:
    National Parks and Wildlife Act, Act 11 of 1992 and National Parks and Wildlife (Protected Species) (Declaration) Order, 1994

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Game Species [=Protected Species]. A fine of MWK 10,000 [USD 16.69] and imprisonment for a term of five years. The value of the fine may not be less than the value of the animal involved.

  • Legislation:
    Forest and Wildlife Act, 1999 and Ordnance no. 117/78 of 1978 (as amended by Ministerial Decree no. 60/90 of 1990).

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii) is a Protected Species in Mozambique, and may not be hunted, captured killed or traded without a permit. A fine of MZN 30,000-60,000 [USD428-855], plus the monetary value of the animal (MZN 90,000 [USD 1 280]) is applicable for contraventions.

  • Legislation:
    Nature Conservation Ordinance 4 of 1975

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Protected Game. No trade permitted. A fine of NAD 300 [USD 20.68] for a first-time offence. In the case of a second offence, a prison term may be imposed.

  • Legislation:
    National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, Act 10 of 2004 (with 2013 revisions), and various provincial legislations.

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Nationally it is listed as a Threatened or Protected Species. A fine not exceeding ZAR 10 million [USD 720,903.99] or imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years, or both such a fine and prison sentence may be imposed.

    Provincial Legislation:

    Eastern Cape Province
    Endangered Wild Animal (Schedule 1) in terms of the Cape Nature and Environmental Conservation Ordinance 19 of 1974
    Free State Province
    Schedule 1 Protected Game Species (Section 2) in terms of the Nature Conservation Ordinance 8 of 1969
    Gauteng Province
    Protected Game (Schedule 2), section 15(1)(a) in terms of the Nature Conservation Ordinance 12 of 1983
    KwaZulu-Natal Province
    Specially Protected Game (Schedule 3) in terms of the Nature Conservation Ordinance 15 of 1974
    Limpopo Province
    Specially Protected Wild Animal (Schedule 2) in terms of the Limpopo Environmental Management Act 7 of 2003
    Mpumalanga Province
    Protected Game (Schedule 2), Section 4(1)(b) in terms of the Mpumalanga Nature Conservation Act 10 of 1998
    North-West Province
    Protected Game (Schedule 2), Section 15(1)(a) in terms of the Transvaal Nature Conservation Ordinance 12 of 1983
    Northern Cape Province
    Specially Protected (Schedule 1) in terms of the Northern Cape Nature Conservation Act 9 of 2009.
    Western Cape Province
    Endangered Wild Animal (Schedule 1) in terms of the Western Cape Nature Conservation Laws Amendment Act 3 of 2000.

  • Legislation:
    Game (Amendment) Act, Act 4 of 1991 and Game Act of 1953

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Royal Game. Possession of a Royal Game species without the relevant permits is punishable with a prison term of 5–15 years, without the option of a fine. Trading in a Royal Game species without a permit is punishable with a prison term of 7–15 years, without the option of a fine. Hunting of a Royal Game species without the necessary permits is punishable with a fine of SZL 4,000–30,000 [USD 275.80–2,068.49], or in default of payment, a prison term of 1–5 years. Fines may not be less than the replacement value of the animal.

  • Legislation:
    Zambia Wildlife Act, Act 12 of 1998 and The National Parks and Wildlife (Protected Animals) Order, Statutory Instrument no. 80 of 1993.

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Protected Species. Hunting is prohibited without a valid permit. Imprisonment for a period not exceeding seven years, without the option of paying a fine, may be imposed for contraventions.

  • Legislation:
    Parks and Wild Life Act, 1975 (with 2012 Statutory Instruments)

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Specially Protected species. Imprisonment for not less than nine years (first offence) or 11 years (second offence), and/or a fine equal to four times the economic value of the poached animal [approximately USD 5,000]. The fine may be quadrupled in the case of a repeat offence.

East Africa & Horn of Africa

Burundi
Ethiopia
Kenya
Rwanda
Somalia
South Sudan
Sudan
Tanzania
Uganda
  • No known legislation

  • Legislation:
    Proclamation no. 414/2004: The Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and Council of Ministers Regulations No. 163/2008: Wildlife Development, Conservation and Utilization

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Protected Species. Killing is only allowed for scientific purposes. Penalties for contraventions are to be determined by a court of law on an individual case basis.

  • Legislation:
    The Wildlife Conservation and Management Act, Act no. 47 of 2013

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Unprotected Species. Subsistence hunting without a permit is punishable with a fine of not less than KES 30,000 [USD 291.43], or imprisonment for not less than six months, or to both such fine and prison sentence. Hunting for the bushmeat trade, or a person in possession of derivatives for the bushmeat trade, is liable to a fine of not less than KES 200,000 [USD 1,942.89], a prison sentence of not less than one year, or to both such a fine and prison sentence.

  • Legislation:
    Ministerial Order No. 007/2008 of 15/08/2008: Establishing the List of Protected Animal and Plant Species and Ministerial Order No. 04/2005 of 08/04/2004: Organic Law Determining the Modalities of Protection, Conservation and Promotion of Environment in Rwanda

    Species applicable to:
    All African pangolin species

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Possibly Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Protected Species. If killed in a protected area, offences are punishable with a prison term of 2–24 months and a fine of RWF 300,000–2,000,000 [USD 374.91–2,499.38], or either a fine or prison term. No penalties are stipulated for areas that are not protected.

  • Legislation:
    Law on Fauna (Hunting) and Forest Conservation and Law no. 15 of 1969

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Prohibited [Fully Protected] Game Species. No person may hunt, kill, possess or trade a Prohibited Game Species. Any person found in contravention of this Act is liable to a fine of SOS 500–3001 [USD 0.84–5.05], a prison term of six months, or to both such a fine and prison term. The court may also rule that any weapon, vehicle, animal or animal parts should be forfeited to the State.

  • Legislation:
    Wildlife Conservation and National Parks Act, 2003.

    Species applicable to:
    All pangolin species

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii), White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Completely Protected Species. Hunting, trade and possession of such species and their derivatives are only allowed under a special ministerial license. Any person in breach of these regulations is liable to a fine not exceeding Ls 10,000 [USD 140.85] or to a prison term not exceeding 14 years, or to both such fine and imprisonment. The court may also confiscate the animal and all derivatives, the weapon(s) used in the commission of the offence and/or the transport used in the commission of the offence.

  • Legislation:
    The Preservation of Wild Animals Ordinance and
    Ordinance no. 5 of 1935

    Species applicable to:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Specially Protected Species. Hunting, trade and possession of such species and their derivatives are only allowed under a special ministerial license. Any person in breach of these regulations is liable to a fine not exceeding SDG 200 [USD 30.61] or to a prison term not exceeding two years, or to both such fine and imprisonment. The court may also cancel the perpetrators’ permit and confiscate the animal(s) in question.

  • Legislation:
    Wildlife Act, 2013 and Wildlife Conservation (National Game) Order of 1974

    Species applicable to:
    All African pangolin species

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    National Game. No person may hunt, kill, capture, wound or molest any National Game, unless prior written permission has been obtained from the Director of Wildlife. Any person that hunts, kills or captures a National Game species is liable to a fine of not less than twice the value of the animal that was hunted, killed or captured, or to a prison term of 1–5 years. Any other offences relating to National Game are liable to a fine of TZS 300,000–1,000,000 [USD 134.99–449.96], or to a prison term of 1–3 years.

  • Legislation:
    Uganda Wildlife Statute, Statute Number 14 of 1996 and Game (Preservation and Control) Act, 1959 [Schedules]

    Species applicable to:
    All African pangolin species

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Possibly Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Animal not to be hunted or captured without a special permit. Contraventions are liable to a fine of not less than UGX 1,000,000 [USD 291.28] or to a prison sentence not exceeding five years, or both; and in either case the fine shall not be less than the value of the poached animal. The poached animal, as well as any materials or possessions used during the illegal act, may be confiscated by the state.

Central Africa

Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Congo Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Equatorial Guinea
Gabon
  • Legislation:
    Order No. 1262/A/MINEF/DFAP/CEP/SAN bearing additive Order No. 565 A/MINEF/DFAP/SDF/SRC listing the animals of classes A, B, and C and specifying regulations trade and movement of wildlife goods and Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Regulations, Law 94-1 of 1994

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Protected (Class B) due their listing on CITES Appendix II . They may only be hunted or traded under permit. Any illegal hunting or trade in these species could result in a XOF 3,000,000–10,000,000 [USD 5,154–17,182] fine, or imprisonment for 1–3 years, or both a fine and a prison term. These penalties are to be doubled for repeat offenders or government officials. [NOTE: These regulations should be revised in light of the uplisting of all pangolin species to CITES Appendix I].

  • Legislation:
    Protection of Wildlife and Hunting Ordinance, Ordinance 84-045 of 1984 and Ordinance no. 84-062 establishing the conditions for the capture and exportation of live wild animals and Commercial Hunting Regulations, Act no. 61/281 of 1961

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Possibly Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Possibly Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea): Fully Protected Species. Hunting, capture and trade prohibited unless the person is in possession of a commercial capture permit. Contraventions are punishable with a fine of XAF 200,000–1,000,000 [USD 332.46–1,662.30], a term of imprisonment of 3–12 months, or both such a fine and imprisonment. In the case of government officials or researchers committing these offences, the penalties will be doubled.

    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla): Game Species. May be hunted for subsistence purposes by indigenes or foreigners subject to a valid hunting license being obtained. If these species are hunted for commercial purposes, a fine of XAF 100,000–200,000 [USD 166.23–332.46], a term of imprisonment of 1–3 months, or both such a fine and period of imprisonment may be imposed. Hunting these species by a foreigner without a valid hunting permit may result in a fine of XAF 100,000–300,000 [USD 166.23–498.69], a prison term of 1–6 months, or both such a fine and prison term. In all cases all carcasses and equipment used to commit the offence will be forfeited to the state. In the case of government officials or researchers committing these offences, the penalties will be doubled.

  • Legislation:
    Hunting and Wildlife Conservation Regulations, Ordinance no. 14-63 of 1963 and Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Resources Act, Act no. 08/PR/14 of 1998

    Species applicable to:
    All African pangolin species

    Native Species:
    Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Fully Protected. Hunting, capture, transport and exportation is strictly prohibited, unless conducted under a special scientific permit and for bona fide research. Species may also be captured and exported under a special ‘commercial capture’ permit. The legislation covers all four pangolin species, although only Temminck's Ground Pangolin Smutsia temminckii is known to occur in this country. Contraventions are punishable with a fine of XAF 100,000–500,000 [USD 166.23–831.15], a prison sentence of 1–3 years, or both such a fine and prison sentence. For repeat offenders, the materials used to commit the offence may be confiscated, as may the animal(s) involved. A mandatory doubling of the fine and prison term is imposed in the case of a repeat offender, or if the transgression occurred in a protected area. The same penalties are to be trebled in the case of a repeat offence occurring in a protected area, or the offender being a government official.

  • Legislation:
    Decree No. 6075 of 9 April 2011 Laying Down Animal Species that are Fully and Partially Protected and Act No. 37-2008 on Wildlife and Protected Areas

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Fully Protected Species. A fine of XAF 100,000–5,000,000 [USD 166.23–8,311.51], imprisonment for 2–5 years, or both may be imposed on transgressors.

  • Legislation:
    Ministerial decree No. 003/CAB/MIN/ECN-EF/2006 of 13 June 2006 laying down the rates of duty, taxes and fees to be charged in respect of fauna and flora, on the initiative of the Ministry of Environment, Conservation, Water and Forests and Order No. 014/CAB/MIN/ENV/2004 of 29 April 2004 on implementation of Law No. 82-002 of 28 May 1982 concerning hunting regulations

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Protection status and penalties:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea): Fully Protected Species. A fee of XAF 129,380 [USD 215.07] is payable to capture, and a fee of XAF 25,880 [USD 43.02] is payable to keep individuals in captivity.

    Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii): Partially Protected Species. A fee of XAF 8,630 [USD 14.35] is payable to capture and an additional fee of XAF 8,630 [USD 14.35] to kill an individual. A fee of XAF 17,250 [USD 28.67] is payable to maintain an individual in captivity.

  • Legislation:
    Wildlife, Hunting and Protected Areas Act, Act no. 8/1988 of 1988

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Fully Protected Species. It is illegal to hunt, capture, kill, transport or in any way disturb any of these species. Contraventions may result in a jail term of unspecified duration [but in the context of the preceding article in the legislation believed to be less than two years], or a fine of XAF 2,500–50,000 [USD 4.16–83.12].

  • Legislation:
    Protection of Wildlife Act, Act 189/PR/MEFCR of 1987 and Hunting Regulations no. 190/PR/MEFCR of 1987 and Regulations Regarding Hunting and the Bearing of Arms for Hunting, Law no. 46/60 of 1960

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea): Fully Protected. Capture, killing, trade, transport and trafficking are strictly prohibited, except under a special research permit. Infractions are punishable with a fine of XAF 3,000–100,000 [USD 4.99–166.23], a prison term of 5 days–12 months, or both such a fine and prison term. The carcass may also be confiscated, and a fine imposed that is equal to the value of the animal.

    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla): Ordinary Game Species. They may be hunted, killed, captured, traded, trafficked and exported without the need for a permit [Hunting Regulation no. 190/PR/MEFCR of 1987 states that a permit is required for the export of these species if they were obtained during a hunt].

West Africa

Benin
Cote d'Ivoire
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Liberia
Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Togo
  • Legislation:
    Wildlife Conservation and Hunting Act, Act no. 87-014 of 1984 and Hunting and Tourism Act, Act no. 93-011 of 1993

    Species applicable to:
    All African pangolin species

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Possibly Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Fully Protected Species. Hunting strictly prohibited, except under permit for scientific research. Contraventions are punishable with a fine of XOF 2,000–300,000 [USD 3.41–513.00], imprisonment for 2–12 months, or both such fine and prison term. In the case of a repeat offender, if the offence occurred in a protected area or if it occurred at night, the fine and/or prison term is to be doubled. If two of the preceding provisions are met, the sentence is to be trebled and all materials used during the committing of the offence are to be confiscated.

  • Legislation:
    Act no. 65-225 of 1965: Wildlife Protection and Hunting Act and Act No. 94-442 of 1994 Amending Act No. 65-225: Wildlife Protection and Hunting Act

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea): Fully Protected Species. Collection only allowed for scientific research. Contraventions are punishable with a XOF 3,000–300,000 [USD 4.99–498.69] fine, imprisonment for 2–12 months, or both. In addition all materials and equipment used during the act may be confiscated. Penalties can be doubled if the infringement occurred in a reserve or national park, or for repeat offenders. Penalties can be trebled if both of the aforementioned conditions are met. The prison term is mandatory for repeat offenders if the contravention occurred within a national park.

    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla): Partially Protected. Hunting and capture only allowed under permit. Contraventions are punishable with a XOF 3,000–300,000 [USD 4.99–498.69] fine, imprisonment for 2–12 months, or both. In addition all materials and equipment used during the act may be confiscated. Penalties can be doubled if the infringement occurred in a reserve or national park, or for repeat offenders. Penalties can be trebled if both of the aforementioned conditions are met. The prison term is mandatory for repeat offenders if the contravention occurred within a national park.

  • Legislation:
    Act 43: Wild Animals Preservation Act, 1961 and Wildlife Conservation Regulations, 1971

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Completely Protected. No individuals may be hunted, killed or traded (except for bona fide research, museums and zoological gardens). The young and females with young are Specially Protected. Legislation does allow for a limited number of pangolins to be killed per annum. Contraventions are punishable with a fine of GHS 200 [USD 49.66] or a prison term of six months, and the forfeiture of the poached animals.

  • Legislation:
    Protection of Wildlife and Hunting Regulations Act, Ordinance no. 007/PRG/SGG/90 of 1990 and Law no. U97/038/An adopting and enacting the Protection of Wildlife and Hunting Regulations Act

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Fully Protected Species. Hunting and capture strictly prohibited. Permits are only issued for scientific purposes. Anyone who hunts, captures or kills a fully protected species is subject to a fine of GNF 70,000–150,000 [USD 7.62–16.32] and a mandatory prison sentence of 6–12 months.

  • Legislation:
    Hunting Regulations, Act 21/80 of 1980

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    The legislation refers to Manis longicaudata – Tree Pangolin [=Phataginus tetradactyla]. As this species is not known to occur in Guinea-Bissau this legislation may in fact refer to the White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), or the legislation may not distinguish between the two species.Both species are Fully Protected Species, as are the females and young of both species. Transgressions are punishable with a PG 10,000 {ca. XOF 154} [USD 0.26] fine. The hunting license is also suspended for a year. In the case of a repeat offence, the fine is to be doubled.

  • Legislation:
    Regulation on Revised Administrative Fees for Wildlife Conservation (FDA Regulation No. 25)

    Species applicable to:
    Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Fully Protected. Contraventions are punishable with a fine of USD 250–500, or 4–5 months imprisonment.

  • Legislation:
    Endangered Species (Control of International Trade and Traffic) Act, 1985 [Amended 2013]

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Possibly Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Possibly Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    No capture, local or international trade is allowed. For a first offence a fine of NGN 1,000 [USD 3.13] may be imposed and for a second and subsequent offences, imprisonment for one year without the option of a fine.

  • Legislation:
    Hunting and Wildlife Regulations, Law no. 86-04 of 1986 and Hunting and Protection of Wildlife Act, Act no. 86-844 of 1986

    Species applicable to:
    All African pangolin species

    Native Species:
    No species are known to occur in Senegal

    Protection status and penalties:
    Fully Protected Species. Hunting, capture and killing is strictly prohibited, unless under a scientific permit. In areas where the population is deemed to be sufficiently large, the Minister of Water, Forests and Wildlife is authorized to make a limited number of individuals of a protected species available for offtake (hunting). Contraventions are punishable with a fine of XOF 240,000–2.4 million [USD 398.95–3,989.52], and imprisonment for 1–5 years. All materials used during the contravention (including modes of transport) may be confiscated.

  • Legislation:
    The Wild Life Conservation Act, Act no. 27 of 1972

    Species applicable to:
    Pups of all African pangolin species, adult Giant Ground Pangolins (Smutsia gigantea) and Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    This legislation apparently specifically applies to pangolin pups. On a first conviction, a fine not exceeding SLL 100 [USD 0.02] or to a prison term not exceeding six months, or both the fine and the prison term. For a second and subsequent convictions a fine not exceeding SLL 150 [USD 0.03] or a prison term not exceeding 12 months, or both, may be imposed. Adult White-bellied (Phataginus tricuspis) and Black-bellied (Phataginus tetradactyla) Pangolins are apparently not protected

  • Legislation:
    Wildlife Protection & Hunting Ordinance of 1968 and Decree no. 80-171 of 4 June 1980 on the application procedures of ordinance no. 4 of 16 January 1968 Regulating the Protection of Wildlife and the Exercise of Hunting in Togo

    Species applicable to:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Native Species:
    White-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), Black-bellied Pangolin (Phataginus tetradactyla), Giant Ground Pangolin (Smutsia gigantea)

    Protection status and penalties:
    Partially Protected. A fee of XOF 5,000 [USD 8.31] is payable to obtain a permit to capture, hunt or kill an individual. [The 1980 regulations only make provision for a XOF 2,000 [USD 3.32] fine for the two tree pangolin species (Phataginus spp.)].